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Lookup NU author(s): Professor Azfar Zaman
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OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to explore the value of noninvasive predictors of death/mode of death in ambulant outpatients with chronic heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND Mortality, in chronic HF remains high, with a significant number of patients dying of progressive disease. Identification of these patients is important. METHODS We recruited 553 ambulant outpatients age 63 +/- 10 years with symptoms of chronic HF (New York Heart Association functional class, 2.3 +/- 0.5) and objective evidence of left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <45%, cardiothoracic ratio >0.55, or pulmonary edema on chest radiograph). After 2,365 patient-years of follow-up, 201 patients had died, with 76 events due to progressive HF. RESULTS Independent predictors of all-cause mortality assessed with the Cox proportional hazards model were as follows: a low standard deviation of all normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN); lower serum sodium and higher creatinine levels; higher cardiothoracic ratio; nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; higher left ventricular end-systolic diameter; left ventricular hypertrophy; and increasing age. Independent predictors of death specific to progressive HF were SDNN, serum sodium and creatinine levels. The hazard ratio of progressive HF death for a 10% decrease in SDNN was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.12); for a 2 mmol/l decrease in serum sodium, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.38); and for a 10 mumol/l increase in serum creatinine, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.19) (all p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In ambulant outpatients with chronic HF, low serum sodium and SDNN and high serum creatinine identify patients at increased risk of death due to progressive HF. (C) 2002 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Author(s): Zaman AG; Kearney MT; Fox KAA; Lee AJ; Prescott RJ; Shah AM; Batin PD; Baig W; Lindsay S; Callahan TS; Shell WE; Eckberg DL; Williams S; Neilson JMM; Nolan J
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
ISSN (print): 0735-1097
ISSN (electronic): 1558-3597
Publisher: Elsevier Inc.
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