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Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Who and How to Treat

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Alison Dickinson, Dr Petros Perros


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Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is the most frequent and troublesome nonthyroidal complication of Graves' disease. It is mandatory to determine whether sight-threatening orbitopathy is present, as this requires prompt and aggressive treatment. Therapies for non-sight-threatening disease range from supportive measures only to medical therapies for active eye disease and surgical rehabilitation for burnt-out disease. Intravenous steroids and orbital radiotherapy are the mainstays of medical therapy. Rehabilitative surgery is frequently a staged process that may involve sequentially: orbital decompression, strabismus surgery, and eyelid procedures. Smoking cessation is recommended at all disease stages. Treatment within a multidisciplinary team consisting of both endocrinologists and ophthalmologists may lead to optimal patient outcomes.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Dickinson J, Perros P

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America

Year: 2009

Volume: 38

Issue: 2

Pages: 373-388

ISSN (print): 0889-8529

ISSN (electronic): 1558-4410

Publisher: W.B. Saunders Co.


DOI: 10.1016/j.ecl.2009.01.004


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