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Does initial breastfeeding lead to lower blood cholesterol in adult life? A quantitative review of the evidence

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Mark Pearce

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Abstract

Background: Earlier studies have suggested that infant feeding may program long-term changes in cholesterol metabolism. Objective: We aimed to examine whether breastfeeding is associated with lower blood cholesterol concentrations in adulthood. Design: The study consisted of a systematic review of published observational studies relating initial infant feeding status to blood cholesterol concentrations in adulthood (ie, aged > 16 y). Data were available from 17 studies (17 498 subjects; 12 890 breastfed, 4608 formula-fed). Mean differences in total cholesterol concentrations (breastfed minus formula-fed) were pooled by using fixed-effect models. Effects of adjustment (for age at outcome, socioeconomic position, body mass index, and smoking status) and exclusion (of nonexclusive breast feeders) were examined. Results: Mean total blood cholesterol was lower (P = 0.037) among those ever breastfed than among those fed formula milk (mean difference: -0.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.08, 0.00 mmol/L). The difference in cholesterol between infant feeding groups was larger (P = 0.005) and more consistent in 7 studies that analyzed "exclusive" feeding patterns (-0.15 mmol/L; -0.23, -0.06 mmol/L) than in 10 studies that analyzed nonexclusive feeding patterns (-0.01 mmol/L; -0.06, 0.03 mmol/L). Adjustment for potential confounders including socioeconomic position, body mass index, and smoking status in adult life had minimal effect on these estimates. Conclusions: Initial breastfeeding (particularly when exclusive) may be associated with lower blood cholesterol concentrations in later life. Moves to reduce the cholesterol content of formula feeds below those of breast milk should be treated with caution.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Owen CG, Whincup PH, Kaye SJ, Martin RM, Smith GD, Cook DG, Bergstrom E, Black S, Wadsworth MEJ, Fall CH, Freudenheim JL, Nie J, Huxley RR, Kolacek S, Leeson CP, Pearce MS, Raitakari OT, Lisinen I, Viikari JS, Ravelli AC, Rudnicka AR, Strachan DP, Williams SM

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Year: 2008

Volume: 88

Issue: 2

Pages: 305-314

ISSN (print): 0002-9165

ISSN (electronic): 1938-3207

Publisher: American Society of Clinical Nutrition


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