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Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Michail Karavolos, Dr David Bulmer, Dr Joseph Gray, Dr Anjam Khan


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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the beta-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Karavolos MH, Bulmer D, Spencer H, Rampioni G, Schmalen I, Baker S, Pickard D, Gray J, Fookes M, Winzer K, Ivens A, Dougan G, Williams P, Khan CMA

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: EMBO Reports

Year: 2011

Volume: 12

Issue: 3

Pages: 252-258

Print publication date: 18/02/2011

ISSN (print): 1469-221X

ISSN (electronic): 1469-3178

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group


DOI: 10.1038/embor.2011.4


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