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Cognitive styles in hypomanic episodes of bipolar I disorder

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Thomas Meyer


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Introduction: Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories have recently been extended to bipolar disorder by suggesting that an activation of negative cognition might lead to depressive mood episodes and an activation of positive cognition might lead to manic mood episodes. Alternatively, the manic defense hypothesis claims that hypomanic and manic states are not the opposite of depression but rather contain similar underlying negative cognitions. The objective of this study was to further evaluate these theories by examining the cognitive patterns in bipolar I hypomania. Methods: We compared 15 hypomanic bipolar patients to 26 remitted bipolar I patients and to 21 healthy individuals in a cross-sectional study. All participants completed the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Attributional Style Questionnaire, the Emotional Stroop Task, and the Emotional Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results: Hypomanic bipolar individuals showed cognitions associated with depressive states as well as cognitions associated with manic states. The results for the remitted bipolar patients paralleled those for the control group. Conclusion: Dysfunctional cognition in bipolar disorder seems to relate to state rather than to trait. Hypomania includes depression related as well as mania related cognitions and can therefore not be considered as the mere opposite of depression.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Lex C, Hautzinger M, Meyer TD

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Bipolar Disorders

Year: 2011

Volume: 13

Issue: 4

Pages: 355-364

Print publication date: 01/06/2011

ISSN (print): 1398-5647

ISSN (electronic): 1399-5618

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.


DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00937.x


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