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Fluoridated toothpaste: usage and ingestion of fluoride by 4-6-year-old children in England

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Vida Zohoori, Dr Ralph Duckworth, Dr Narges Omid, Emerita Professor Anne Maguire


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Fluoridated toothpaste is effective for dental caries control, yet may be a risk factor for dental fluorosis. This study aimed to quantify fluoride ingestion from toothpaste by children and to investigate the effects of age, gender, and social class on the amount of fluoride ingested per toothbrushing session. Sixty-one children, 4–6 yr of age, were recruited: 38 were from low socio-economic (LSE) areas of Newcastle, UK, and 23 were from high socio-economic (HSE) areas of Newcastle, UK. All expectorated saliva, rinse water (if used), and residual toothpaste were collected after brushing at home and were analysed for fluoride. Of the children, 74% and 69% from HSE and LSE areas, respectively, claimed that they brushed twice per day. The mean (SD) weight of toothpaste dispensed was 0.67 (0.36) g. The mean (SD) amount of fluoride ingested per toothbrushing session and per day was 17.0 (14.7) and 29.3 (32.8) μg kg−1 of body weight, respectively. Daily fluoride intake per kilogram of body weight did not differ significantly between children from LSE and HSE areas. Fluoride intake per toothbrushing session was significantly influenced by weight of toothpaste, its fluoride concentration, and the child's age. Whilst the average amount of toothpaste used per toothbrushing session was more than twice the recommended amount (of 0.25 g), only one child had a daily fluoride intake that exceeded the tolerable upper intake level of 0.1 mg kg−1 of body weight for this age group.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Zohoori FV, Duckworth RM, Omid N, O'Hare WT, Maguire A

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Journal of Oral Sciences

Year: 2012

Volume: 120

Issue: 5

Pages: 415-421

Print publication date: 06/08/2012

ISSN (print): 0909-8836

ISSN (electronic): 1600-0722

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.


DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2012.00984.x


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