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The 10 warning signs: a time for a change?

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Andrew Cant


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Purpose of review It is 20 years since the 10 Warning Signs of primary immunodeficiency (PID) were first published and with over 180 PIDs now identified it is timely to evaluate their effectiveness, given the broadening clinical spectrum of PID. Recent findings Two recent studies have sought to define the features that best identify patients with PID and compare these with the 10 Warning Signs. They suggest the 10 Warning Signs discriminate poorly between those with and without PID, and that other features identify about one-third of patients with PID in whom none of the 10 Warning Signs was present. Recent literature describes the diverse presenting features that may assist in more accurately identifying those with PID. Summary Further development and refinement of early warning signs in light of the growing knowledge of how PIDs manifest clinically may allow relatively simple yet effective guidelines targeted at different groups to better detect PID.

Publication metadata

Author(s): O'Sullivan MD, Cant AJ

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Year: 2012

Volume: 12

Issue: 6

Pages: 588-594

Print publication date: 01/12/2012

ISSN (print): 1528-4050

ISSN (electronic): 1473-6322



DOI: 10.1097/ACI.0b013e3283591534