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The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Geraldine Wright


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Nosema ceranae is spreading into areas where Nosema apis already exists. N. ceranae has been reported to cause an asymptomatic infection that may lead, ultimately, to colony collapse. It is thought that there may be a temperature barrier to its infiltration into countries in colder climates. In this study, 71 colonies from Scottish Beekeeper's Association members have been screened for the presence of N. apis and N. ceranae across Scotland. We find that only 11 of the 71 colonies tested positive for spores by microscopy. However, 70.4 % of colonies screened by PCR revealed the presence of both N. ceranae and N. apis, with only 4.2 or 7 % having either strain alone and 18.3 % being Nosema free. A range of geographically separated colonies testing positive for N. ceranae were sequenced to confirm their identity. All nine sequences confirmed the presence of N. ceranae and indicated the presence of a single new variant. Furthermore, two of the spore-containing colonies had only N. ceranae present, and these exhibited the presence of smaller spores that could be distinguished from N. apis by the analysis of average spore size. Differential quantification of the PCR product revealed N. ceranae to be the dominant species in all seven samples tested. In conclusion, N. ceranae is widespread in Scotland where it exists in combination with the endemic N. apis. A single variant, identical to that found in France (DQ374655) except for the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism, is present in Scotland.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Bollan KA, Hothersall JD, Moffat C, Durkacz J, Saranzewa N, Wright GA, Raine NE, Highet F, Connolly CN

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Parasitology Research

Year: 2013

Volume: 112

Issue: 2

Pages: 751-759

Print publication date: 01/02/2013

ISSN (print): 0932-0113

ISSN (electronic): 1432-1955

Publisher: Springer


DOI: 10.1007/s00436-012-3195-0


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Funder referenceFunder name
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Living with Environmental Change programme
Insect Pollinator Initiative
Scottish Government
Wellcome Trust
BB/I000143/1Natural Environment Research Council
BB/I000178/1Natural Environment Research Council
BB/I00031/1Natural Environment Research Council