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Reactive-extraction of pongamia seeds for biodiesel production

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Adam Harvey, Dr Jonathan LeeORCiD, Farizul Kasim, Elizabeth Eterigho


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Biodiesel (FAME) was produced from Pongamia seeds (commonly known as Karanja) by reactive-extraction. Reactive-extraction involves contacting ground seeds directly with alcohol and catalyst i.e. without intervening extraction of the vegetable oil. This process has the potential to reduce cost by removing the need for capital and running cost-intensive steps such as oil extraction of seeds. Reaction parameters such as seed size (>2 mm to <1 mm), seed/solvent ratio (wt/wt) (1:2-1:4), temperature (30-60 degrees C) and rate of mixing (250-550 rpm) were studied. The maximum 98.5% conversion to biodiesel was achieved at: seed size (<1 mm), seed/solvent ratio (wt/wt) (1:4), rate of mixing (550 rpm) at 60 degrees C for 1 hr with 0.1 M catalyst (KOH) concentration, meeting International (ASTM) as well as National (BIS) specifications

Publication metadata

Author(s): Porwal J, Bangwal D, Garg MO, Kaul S, Harvey AP, Lee JGM, Kasim FH, Eterigho EJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research

Year: 2012

Volume: 71

Issue: 12

Pages: 822-828

Print publication date: 01/12/2012

ISSN (print): 0022-4456

ISSN (electronic): 0975-1084

Publisher: National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources



Funder referenceFunder name
British council under UKIERI
SA-007British council under UKIERI DST