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The measurement of visual sampling during real-world activity in Parkinson's disease and healthy controls: A structured literature review

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Sam Stuart, Dr Lisa AlcockORCiD, Dr Brook Galna, Dr Susan Lord, Professor Lynn RochesterORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


Background: Visual sampling techniques are used to investigate the complex role of vision during real-world activities in Parkinson’s disease. Earlier research is limited to static simple tasks or measurement ofeye movements alone, but more recent investigations involve more real-world activities. The approach tothe objective measurement of eye movements varies with respect to instrumentation, testing protocols,and mediating factors that may influence visual sampling.Objectives: The aim of this review was to examine previous work measuring visual sampling during real-world activities in Parkinson’s disease to inform the development of robust protocols. Within this reviewa real-world activity was considered to be a goal-orientated motor task involving more than one bodysegment such as reaching or walking.Methods: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, PubMed and the Cochrane librarydatabases were searched. Two independent reviewers and an adjudicator screened articles that describedquantitative visual sampling in people with Parkinson’s disease and healthy controls.Results: Twenty full-text articles were screened and 15 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. A wide range ofinstruments and outcome measures were reported which were generally used in a task-dependent man-ner. Instrument reliability and validity was insufficiently reported in all studies. Few studies consideredmediators of visual sampling such as visual or cognitive deficits.Conclusions: Future research is required to accurately characterise visual impairments in Parkinson’s dis-ease and during real-world activities. Composite use of instruments may be required to achieve reliabilityand validity of visual sampling outcomes which need to be standardised. Recommendations also includeassessment of cognition and basic visual function.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Stuart S, Alcock L, Galna B, Lord S, Rochester L

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Neuroscience Methods

Year: 2014

Volume: 222

Pages: 175-188

Print publication date: 30/01/2014

Online publication date: 27/11/2013

Acceptance date: 19/11/2013

ISSN (print): 0165-0270

ISSN (electronic): 1872-678X


DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.11.018