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Effect of Protein Level and Urea Source in Concentrate on Feed Intake and Rumen Ecology in Swamp Buffalo Fed Rice Straw

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Peter Rowlinson


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Four, Thai-fitulated native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein level and urea on feed intake, rumen ecology and microbial populations. The treatments were as follows: Concentrate containing protein at 12% CP (soybean meal) (T1); 16% CP (soybean meal) (T2); 12% CP (urea) (T3); and 16% CP (urea) (T4), respectively. All animals were fed concentrate at 1% of BW and untreated rice straw ad libitum. The results have revealed that both rice straw and total DM intake were significant increased (P<0.05) by urea as a protein source in concentrate as compared to soybean meal. In contrast, there were no effects of protein level and urea on ruminal pH, while concentration of ruminal NH3-N and blood urea-nitrogen were rather high in the treatment with 16% CP concentrate in both soybean meal and urea as protein sources. However, urea as a protein source showed higher result of ruminal NH3-N. In addition, rumen microorganism population such as bacteria, fungi zoospores and protozoa were affected by different level of protein in concentrate and the highest were found in 16% CP concentrate (T2 and T4). Moreover, viable bacteria were significantly increased with higher level of protein in concentrate (16% CP), except for amylolytic bacteria. Based on this study, it could be concluded that protein level in concentrate affected on feed intake and rumen ecology and the use of urea as protein source have shown better results as compared to soybean meal. Therefore, urea (4% in concentrate) could be used as a protein (NPN) source in swamp buffalo fed on untreated rice straw satisfactorily.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Kang S, Wanapat M, Rowlinson P

Publication type: Conference Proceedings (inc. Abstract)

Publication status: Published

Conference Name: 10th World Buffalo Congress and 7th Asian Buffalo Congress

Year of Conference: 2013

Pages: 970-974

Publisher: Thai Buffalo Association: Research Centre for Bioscience in Animal Production


Library holdings: Search Newcastle University Library for this item

Series Title: Buffalo Bulletin