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Smooth Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Defect Detection Using Microwave Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Bin Gao, Hong Zhang, Dr Wai Lok Woo, Professor Gui Yun TianORCiD, Dr Aijun Yin


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This paper addresses the interpolation issue of current spectral estimation methods in microwave-based nondestructive testing and evaluation. We developed a spatial-frequency feature extraction algorithm for defect detection with an open-ended waveguide system using smooth Itakura-Saito nonnegative matrix factorization. In addition, the mathematical models of spatial-frequency characteristics for both defects and nondefects areas are derived. The newly developed algorithm has two prominent characteristics, which benefit the detection system. First, it is scale-invariant in the sense that spatial-frequency features that are characterized by large dynamic range of energy can be extracted more efficiently. Second, it imposes smoothness constraint on the solution to enhance the spatial resolution of defect detection. To evaluate the proposed technique, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by performing extensive experiments on four samples: four defects in an aluminum plate with different depths, a steel plate with 15-mm coating thickness, one tiny defect on steel and one natural defect. Experimental results have unanimously demonstrated the capabilities of the proposed technique in accurately detecting defects, especially for shallow and coated samples with high resolution.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Gao B, Zhang H, Woo WL, Tian GY, Bai LB, Yin AJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Year: 2014

Volume: 63

Issue: 4

Pages: 923-934

Print publication date: 01/04/2014

ISSN (print): 0018-9456

ISSN (electronic): 1557-9662

Publisher: IEEE


DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2013.2287126


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Funder referenceFunder name
2013HH0059Sichuan Science and Technology Department
51105396National Natural Science Foundation of China
51377015National Natural Science Foundation of China