Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Claire Wood, Professor Nicholas EmbletonORCiD


Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available.


The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Wood CL, Wood AM, Harker C, Embleton ND

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Endocrinology

Year: 2013

Acceptance date: 24/03/2013

ISSN (print): 1687-8337

ISSN (electronic): 1687-8345



DOI: 10.1155/2013/902513