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Geographically weighted methods and their use in network re-designs for environmental monitoring

Lookup NU author(s): Emeritus Professor Steve Juggins, Dr Christopher Brunsdon


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Given an initial spatial sampling campaign, it is often of importance to conduct a second, more targeted campaign based on the properties of the first. Here a network re-design modifies the first one by adding and/or removing sites so that maximum information is preserved. Commonly, this optimisation is constrained by limited sampling funds and a reduced sample network is sought. To this extent, we demonstrate the use of geographically weighted methods combined with a location-allocation algorithm, as a means to design a second-phase sampling campaign in univariate, bivariate and multivariate contexts. As a case study, we use a freshwater chemistry data set covering much of Great Britain. Applying the two-stage procedure enables the optimal identification of a pre-specified number of sites, providing maximum spatial and univariate/bivariate/multivariate water chemistry information for the second campaign. Network re-designs that account for the buffering capacity of a freshwater site to acidification are also conducted. To complement the use of basic methods, robust alternatives are used to reduce the effect of anomalous observations on the re-designs. Our non-stationary re-design framework is general and provides a relatively simple and a viable alternative to geostatistical re-design procedures that are commonly adopted. Particularly in the multivariate case, it represents an important methodological advance.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Harris P, Clarke A, Juggins S, Brunsdon C, Charlton M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment

Year: 2014

Volume: 28

Issue: 7

Pages: 1869-1887

Print publication date: 01/10/2014

Online publication date: 12/02/2014

ISSN (print): 1436-3240

ISSN (electronic): 1436-3259

Publisher: Springer


DOI: 10.1007/s00477-014-0851-1


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Funder referenceFunder name
07/SRC/I1168Strategic Research Cluster grant by the Science Foundation Ireland under the National Development Plan