Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Quantifying a cellular automata simulation of electric vehicles

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Graeme Hill, Professor Margaret Carol Bell CBE, Professor Phil BlytheORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


Within this work the Nagel–Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata is used to simulate a basic cyclic road network. Results from SwitchEV, a real world Electric Vehicle trial which has collected more than two years of detailed electric vehicle data, are used to quantify the results of the NS automata, demonstrating similar power consumption behavior to that observed in the experimental results. In particular the efficiency of the electric vehicles reduces as the vehicle density increases, due in part to the reduced efficiency of EVs at low speeds, but also due to the energy consumption inherent in changing speeds. Further work shows the results from introducing spatially restricted speed restriction. In general it can be seen that induced congestion from spatially transient events propagates back through the road network and alters the energy and efficiency profile of the simulated vehicles, both before and after the speed restriction. Vehicles upstream from the restriction show a reduced energy usage and an increased efficiency, and vehicles downstream show an initial large increase in energy usage as they accelerate away from the speed restriction.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Hill GA, Bell MC, Blythe PT

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications

Year: 2014

Volume: 416

Pages: 421–429

Print publication date: 15/12/2014

Online publication date: 28/08/2014

Acceptance date: 08/08/2014

Date deposited: 04/10/2018

ISSN (print): 0378-4371

ISSN (electronic): 1873-2119

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2014.08.007


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
EP/I002154/1Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
EP/E002129/1Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
EP/K037579/1Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council