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Lack of evidence to support present medial release methods in total knee arthroplasty

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Nicola Hunt, Professor David Deehan

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Abstract

The aim of this review was to identify a reliable sequential medial release protocol for restoration of soft tissue balance in total knee arthroplasty of the varus osteoarthritic knee and to allow for improved intraoperative decision-making.Current medial release sequences and applicability based upon pre-operative deformity have been reviewed. Furthermore, risks associated with over release, and the necessity of medial release, are discussed.The different medial release sequences are discussed in relation to pre-operative deformity, along with potential complications associated with medial release. It was found that release sequences may include the deep and superficial components of the medial collateral ligament, the posteromedial capsule, the posterior oblique ligament, the pes anserinus (pes A), and tendons of the semimembranosus and medial gastrocnemius muscle. The sequences described were found to vary substantially between studies, and very few studies had systematically quantified the effect of each release on balance.While medial release is the standard intraoperative mode of balancing, there is a lack of evidence to support current methods. The correct method for defining intraoperatively the sequence, extent and magnitude of releases required remains ill-defined. It could be argued that the classic extensive medial release may be unnecessary and may be associated with iatrogenic injury to the pes A and saphenous nerve, instability and abnormal knee kinematics. Minimal medial release may allow for improved soft tissue balancing leading ultimately to improved functional outcome.V (expert opinion).


Publication metadata

Author(s): Hunt NC, Ghosh KM, Athwal KK, Longstaff LM, Amis AA, Deehan DJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

Year: 2014

Volume: 22

Issue: 12

Pages: 3100-3112

Print publication date: 01/12/2014

Online publication date: 05/07/2014

Acceptance date: 18/06/2014

ISSN (print): 0942-2056

ISSN (electronic): 1433-7347

Publisher: Springer

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-3148-5

DOI: 10.1007/s00167-014-3148-5


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