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Twenty-first-century oral hairy leukoplakia-a non-HIV-associated entity

Lookup NU author(s): Anne Chambers, Dr Max RobinsonORCiD, Robert Banks, Professor Philip Sloan


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Objective. This study presents the clinicopathologic features of a series (N = 35) of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL).Methods. Patients with non-HIV-associated OHL were identified from three centers. Epstein-Barr virus infection was demonstrated by using EBV early ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization. The presence of Candida co-infection was evaluated by diastase periodic acid-Schiff staining. The clinical features were determined by review of the medical records.Results. Twenty-eight patients had intercurrent respiratory problems requiring long-term steroid inhaler use, four suffered from autoimmune diseases requiring immunosuppressant therapy, and four had diabetes. The majority of lesions were located on the tongue, and 24 showed evidence of Candida co-infection.Conclusions. In the twenty-first century, the presence of OHL should not be regarded as pathognomic for HIV infection or significant systemic immunosuppression. Local and systemic immunosuppression, in the form of steroid inhaler use, is a risk factor for the development of OHL.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Chambers AE, Conn B, Pemberton M, Robinson M, Banks R, Sloan P

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology

Year: 2015

Volume: 119

Issue: 3

Pages: 326-332

Print publication date: 01/03/2015

Online publication date: 05/12/2015

Acceptance date: 19/11/2014

ISSN (print): 2212-4403

ISSN (electronic): 1528-395X

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2014.11.012


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