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User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television.

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Jenny ReadORCiD, Dr Iwo Bohr



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the ‘nocebo effect’). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Read JCA, Bohr I

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Ergonomics

Year: 2014

Volume: 57

Issue: 8

Pages: 1140-1153

Online publication date: 30/05/2014

Acceptance date: 27/03/2014

Date deposited: 23/06/2015

ISSN (print): 0014-0139

ISSN (electronic): 1366-5847

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2014.914581

PubMed id: PMC4118898


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Funder referenceFunder name
British Sky Broadcasting Limited, Grant Way Isleworth, UK (BSkyB)
UF041260Royal Society University Research Fellowship