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Electrical characteristics of cold ironing energy supply for berthed ships

Lookup NU author(s): Edward Sciberras, Dr Bashar Zahawi, Dr Dave Atkinson



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


The reduction of emissions in harbours is of particular importance due to the proximity to human habitation. Vessels normally run onboard generators, typically using diesel fuel, to provide the service loads while berthed. New and upcoming regulations aim to decrease emissions from shipping, and coupled with increased environmental consciousness of ship owners and harbour operators, shore supply is becoming a more popular and feasible option. Cold ironing provides an alternative locally emission-free solution by having berthed ships plug in to the shore electrical network, such that the onboard electrical energy demand is supplied from land. Electrically, a number of different shore network topologies are possible, providing different infrastructural options of supplying power to multiple berths. This paper examines the electrical characteristics of one such installation and the impact on the shoreside electrical network for an existing port using actual visiting ship power profiles. The paper examines how the cold ironing system influences important electrical network characteristics such as bus voltages and power quality, as well as the potential impact on the rest of the utility distribution system.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Sciberras EA, Zahawi B, Atkinson DJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Transportation Research. Part D: Transport & Environment

Year: 2015

Volume: 39

Pages: 31-43

Print publication date: 01/08/2015

Online publication date: 25/06/2015

Acceptance date: 01/06/2015

Date deposited: 26/06/2015

ISSN (print): 1361-9209

ISSN (electronic): 1879-2340

Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2015.05.007


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Funder referenceFunder name
266126European Union Seventh Framework Programme