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Lookup NU author(s): Dr Ravikumar Balasubramanian,
Dr Richard Quinton
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Context: Loss of function (LoF) mutations in more than 20 genes are now known to cause isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD) in humans. Most causal IGD mutations are typically private, ie, limited to a single individual/pedigree. However, somewhat paradoxically, four IGD genes (GNRH1, TAC3, PROKR2, and GNRHR) have been shown to harbor LoF founder mutations that are shared by multiple unrelated individuals. It is not known whether similar founder mutations occur in other IGD genes.Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether shared deleterious mutations in IGD-associated genes represent founder alleles.Setting: This study was an international collaboration among academic medical centers.Methods: IGD patients with shared mutations, defined as those documented in three or more unrelated probands in 14 IGD-associated genes, were identified from various academic institutions, the Human Gene Mutation Database, and literature reports by other international investigators. Haplotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats surrounding the mutations were constructed to assess genetic ancestry.Results: A total of eight founder mutations in five genes, GNRHR (Q106R, R262Q, R139H), TACR3 (W275X), PROKR2 (R85H), FGFR1 (R250Q, G687R), and HS6ST1 (R382W) were identified. Most founder alleles were present at low frequency in the general population. The estimated age of these mutant alleles ranged from 1925 to 5600 years and corresponded to the time of rapid human population expansion.Conclusions: We have expanded the spectrum of founder alleles associated with IGD to a total of eight founder mutations. In contrast to the approximately 9000-year-old PROKR2 founder allele that may confer a heterozygote advantage, the rest of the founder alleles are relatively more recent in origin, in keeping with the timing of recent human population expansion and any selective heterozygote advantage of these alleles requires further evaluation.
Author(s): Choi JH, Balasubramanian R, Lee PH, Shaw ND, Hall JE, Plummer L, Buck CL, Kottler ML, Jarzabek K, Wolczynski S, Quinton R, Latronico AC, Dode C, Ogata T, Kim HG, Layman LC, Gusella JF, Crowley WF
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Print publication date: 01/10/2015
Online publication date: 24/07/2015
Acceptance date: 21/07/2015
ISSN (print): 0021-972X
ISSN (electronic): 1945-7197
Publisher: The Endocrine Society
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