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Printed educational messages fail to increase use of thiazides as first-line medication for hypertension in primary care: a cluster randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN72772651]

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Justin Presseau, Dr Jill Francis, Professor Marie Johnston, Emeritus Professor Martin Eccles



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Background: Evidence on the effectiveness of printed educational messages in contributing to increasing evidence-based clinical practice is contradictory. Nonetheless, these messages flood physician offices, in an attempt to promote treatments that can reduce costs while improving patient outcomes. This study evaluated the ability of printed educational messages to promote the choice of thiazides as the first-line treatment for individuals newly diagnosed with hypertension, a practice supported by good evidence and included in guidelines, and one which could reduce costs to the health care system.Methods: The study uses a pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial (randomized by physician practice group).Setting: The setting involves all Ontario general/family practice physicians. Messages advising the use of thiazides as the first-line treatment of hypertension were mailed to each physician in conjunction with a widely read professional newsletter. Physicians were randomized to receive differing versions of printed educational messages: an "insert" (two-page evidence-based article) and/or one of two different versions of an "outsert" (short, directive message stapled to the outside of the newsletter). One outsert was developed without an explicit theory and one with messages developed targeting factors from the theory of planned behaviour or neither (newsletter only, with no mention of thiazides).The percentage of patients aged over 65 and newly diagnosed with hypertension who were prescribed a thiazide as the sole initial prescription medication. The effect of the intervention was estimated using a logistic regression model estimated using generalized estimating equation methods to account for the clustering of patients within physician practices.Results: Four thousand five hundred four physicians (with 23,508 patients) were randomized, providing 97 % power to detect a 5 % absolute increase in prescription of thiazides. No intervention effect was detected. Thiazides were prescribed to 27.6 % of the patients who saw control physicians, 27.4 % for the insert, 26.8 % for the outsert and 28.3 % of the patients who saw insert + outsert physicians, p = 0.54.Conclusions: The study conclusively failed to demonstrate any impact of the printed educational messages on increasing prescribing of thiazide diuretics for first-line management of hypertension.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Zwarenstein M, Grimshaw JM, Presseau J, Francis JJ, Godin G, Johnston M, Eccles MP, Tetroe J, Shiller SK, Croxford R, Kelsall D, Paterson JM, Austin PC, Tu KR, Yun LS, Hux JE

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Implementation Science

Year: 2016

Volume: 11

Online publication date: 17/09/2016

Acceptance date: 26/08/2016

Date deposited: 23/11/2016

ISSN (electronic): 1748-5908

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.


DOI: 10.1186/s13012-016-0486-3


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Funder referenceFunder name
724180703Canadian Institutes of Health Research