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L-form bacteria, chronic diseases and the origins of life

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Jeff ErringtonORCiD, Dr Katarzyna Mickiewicz, Dr Yoshikazu Kawai, Dr Ling Juan Wu



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


The peptidoglycan cell wall is widely conserved across the bacterial domain, suggesting that it appeared early in the evolution of bacteria. It is normally essential but under certain conditions wall-deficient or 'L-form' bacteria can be isolated. In Bacillus subtilis this normally requires two genetic changes. The first, exemplified by mutations shutting down wall precursor synthesis, works by increasing membrane synthesis. This promotes the unusual form of proliferation used by Moans, involving a range of relatively disorganized membrane blebbing or vesiculation events. The secondary class of mutations probably work by relieving oxidative stress that L-forms may incur due to their unbalanced metabolism. Repression or inhibition of cell wall precursor synthesis can stimulate the L-form transition in a wide range of bacteria, of both Gram-positive and-negative lineages. L-forms are completely resistant to most antibiotics working specifically on cell wall synthesis, such as penicillins and cephalosporins, consistent with the many reports of their involvement in various chronic diseases. They are potentially important in biotechnology, because lack of a wall can be advantageous in a range of production or strain improvement applications. Finally, L-forms provide an interesting model system for studying early steps in the evolution of cellular life.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Errington J, Mickiewicz K, Kawai Y, Wu LJ

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Year: 2016

Volume: 371

Issue: 1707

Print publication date: 05/11/2016

Online publication date: 29/09/2016

Acceptance date: 07/06/2016

ISSN (print): 0962-8436

ISSN (electronic): 1471-2970

Publisher: ROYAL SOC


DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0494