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Modulation of Crystal Surface and Lattice by Doping: Achieving Ultrafast Metal-Ion Insertion in Anatase TiO2

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Ulrich Stimming



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).


We report that an ultrafast kinetics of reversible metal-ion insertion can be realized in anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2). Niobium ions (Nb5+ ) were carefully chosen to dope and drive anatase TiO2 into very thin nanosheets standing perpendicularly onto transparent conductive electrode (TCE) and simultaneously construct TiO2 with an ion-conducting surface together with expanded ion diffusion channels, which enabled ultrafast metal ions to diffuse across the electrolyte/solid interface and into the bulk of TiO2. To demonstrate the superior metal-ion insertion rate, the electrochromic features induced by ion intercalation were examined, which exhibited the best color switching speed of 4.82 s for coloration and 0.91 s for bleaching among all reported nanosized TiO2 devices. When performed as the anode for the secondary battery, the modified TiO2 was capable to deliver a highly reversible capacity of 61.2 mAh/g at an ultrahigh specific current rate of 60 degrees C (10.2 A/g). This fast metal-ion insertion behavior was systematically investigated by the well-controlled electrochemical approaches, which quantitatively revealed both the enhanced surface kinetics and bulk ion diffusion rate. Our study could provide a facile methodology to modulate the ion diffusion kinetics for metal oxides.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Wang HY, Chen HY, Hsu YY, Stimming U, Chen HM, Liu B

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

Year: 2016

Volume: 8

Issue: 42

Pages: 29186-29193

Print publication date: 26/10/2016

Online publication date: 11/10/2016

Acceptance date: 11/10/2016

Date deposited: 14/12/2016

ISSN (print): 1944-8244

ISSN (electronic): 1944-8252

Publisher: American Chemical Society


DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b11185


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Funder referenceFunder name
National Research Foundation, Prime Minister's Office, Singapore
Newcastle Univ.
M4070232.120Agency for Science, Technology and Research in Singapore
M4080977.120Nanyang Technological Univ.
M4011021.120Singapore Ministry of Education