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Pathology of the pituitary, parathyroid, thyroid and adrenal glands

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Sarah Johnson


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© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. The clinical presentation of pathology of these endocrine organs is usually of hyper- or hypo-secretion of hormones, enlargement and/or nodules found either clinically or radiologically. Hyperfunction usually results from hyperplasia or functioning neoplasms. Hypofunction usually represents destruction of the gland. Neoplasms may be functional or non-functional, and benign or malignant, the latter may also present as distant metastases. Many cases benefit from multidisciplinary team discussion, pre- and/or post-operatively. Most hyperplasia/neoplasia is sporadic, but a significant minority occurs in familial settings, for example multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1 and type 2. Any of these endocrine organs can also be involved by non-endocrine primary malignancy, either by direct infiltration or blood-borne metastasis.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Okpokam A, Johnson SJ

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Surgery

Year: 2014

Volume: 32

Issue: 10

Pages: 513-524

Print publication date: 01/10/2014

Online publication date: 12/09/2014

Acceptance date: 01/01/1900

ISSN (print): 0263-9319

ISSN (electronic): 1878-1764

Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


DOI: 10.1016/j.mpsur.2014.07.007