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Cost-effectiveness of implantable cardiac devices in patients with systolic heart failure

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Chris PlummerORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).


Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), cardiac resynchronisation therapy pacemakers (CRT-Ps) and combination therapy (CRT-D) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction based on a range of clinical characteristics. Methods Individual patient data from 13 randomised trials were used to inform a decision analytical model. A series of regression equations were used to predict baseline all-cause mortality, hospitalisation rates and health-related quality of life and device-related treatment effects. Clinical variables used in these equations were age, QRS duration, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, ischaemic aetiology and left bundle branch block (LBBB). A UK National Health Service perspective and a lifetime time horizon were used. Benefits were expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results were reported for 24 subgroups based on LBBB status, QRS duration and NYHA class. Results At a threshold of £30 000 per QALY gained, CRT-D was cost-effective in 10 of the 24 subgroups including all LBBB morphology patients with NYHA I/II/ III. ICD is cost-effective for all non-NYHA IV patients with QRS duration <120 ms and for NYHA I/II non-LBBB morphology patients with QRS duration between 120 ms and 149 ms. CRT-P was also cost-effective in all NYHA III/IV patients with QRS duration >120 ms. Device therapy is cost-effective in most patient groups with LBBB at a threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained. Results were robust to altering key model parameters. Conclusions At a threshold of £30 000 per QALY gained, CRT-D is cost-effective in a far wider group than previously recommended in the UK. In some subgroups ICD and CRT-P remain the cost-effective choice.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Mealing S, Woods B, Hawkins N, Cowie MR, Plummer CJ, Abraham WT, Beshai JF, Klein H, Sculpher M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Heart

Year: 2016

Volume: 102

Issue: 21

Pages: 1742-1749

Print publication date: 01/11/2016

Online publication date: 13/07/2016

Acceptance date: 18/05/2016

Date deposited: 19/04/2017

ISSN (print): 1355-6037

ISSN (electronic): 1468-201X

Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group


DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308883


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