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Urinary Tract Infections in Immunocompromised Patients with Diabetes, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Kidney Transplant

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Zafer Tandogdu


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© 2016 Context This paper provides a brief overview of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in immunocompromised patients from the perspective of a practicing urologist. Objective The primary objective was to provide an update on UTIs in immunocompromised patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, and kidney transplant (KT) are the most common clinical cases encountered by urologists. Diagnosis, management, and future research needs are summarised. Evidence acquisition We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature. A comprehensive search of the PubMed database between 1996 and 2016 was performed. Evidence synthesis Clinical diagnosis of UTIs in immunocompromised patients is challenging. Causative pathogens in DM are slightly different to those in the general population, but without any difference in resistance profiles. Keeping serum glucose under control is the most important preventive measure. The prevalence of UTIs in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is 21–75%. Lipophilic antibiotics are effective in the treatment of infected cysts, albeit with a trend for lower effectiveness due to increasing resistance rates. UTIs are the most common infections in KT recipients, with a reported rate of 45–72%. Diagnostic challenges exist for both ADPKD and KT patients who develop UTIs. Treatment of UTIs should be tailored according to individual patient characteristics and the severity classification framework suggested by the European Society of Infections in Urology. Conclusions The underlying pathophysiology of UTIs in immunocompromised patients is not well known, which limits UTI management, including early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Future research to identify patients at higher risk of UTIs is necessary. Patient summary In this report we looked at patients with a weakened immune system who are more likely to develop a urine infection. We focused on the patient groups most commonly encountered in a urology setting. We found that these patients have a higher risk of urinary infection, but the signs of infection may be different to those in the general population. Early diagnosis is imperative in this group. Further research on early diagnosis and better individualised management strategies are necessary.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Tandogdu Z, Cai T, Koves B, Wagenlehner F, Bjerklund-Johansen TE

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Urology Focus

Year: 2016

Volume: 2

Issue: 4

Pages: 394-399

Print publication date: 01/10/2016

Online publication date: 05/10/2016

Acceptance date: 12/08/2016

ISSN (electronic): 2405-4569

Publisher: Elsevier B.V.


DOI: 10.1016/j.euf.2016.08.006