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Intermetallic phase transformations in Au-Al wire bonds

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Stevin Pramana


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This paper describes the crystallochemical mechanisms that underpin the migration of nano-size alumina, intermetallic growth and phase transformations in Au-Al wire bonds during annealing from 175 °C to 250 °C by utilizing high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Alumina, encapsulated within the Au-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs), migrates towards the Au ball during annealing, with Au diffusion into the Al pad. The sequence of Au-Al IMC phase development during annealing was investigated. Initially, Au 8Al3 appears as a third phase between the Au4Al and AuAl2 layers that form during bonding, and gradually becomes the dominant compound. Both AuAl2 and Au8Al3 are transformed into the Au-rich alloyAu4Al when Al is completely consumed, and this is the terminal product. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Xu H, Liu C, Silberschmidt VV, Pramana SS, White TJ, Chen Z, Acoff VL

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Intermetallics

Year: 2011

Volume: 19

Issue: 12

Pages: 1808-1816

Print publication date: 01/12/2011

Online publication date: 28/08/2011

ISSN (print): 0966-9795

ISSN (electronic): 1879-0216

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.intermet.2011.07.003


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