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New mechanisms of void growth in Au-Al wire bonds: Volumetric shrinkage and intermetallic oxidation

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Stevin PramanaORCiD


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This letter examines void nucleation and coalescence in Au-Al wire bonds using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that void formation is not only attributed to Kirkendall-type migration as conventionally believed, but also due to volumetric shrinkage and intermetallic oxidation. A volumetric shrinkage of a few percent is associated with intermetallic growth and phase transformations. Intermetallic oxidation occurs at the intermetallics/alumina interface and the migration of oxygen towards the intermetallics leads to void growth and thickening of the surrounding oxide walls. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Xu H, Liu C, Silberschmidt VV, Pramana SS, White TJ, Chenc Z, Acoffa VL

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Scripta Materialia

Year: 2011

Volume: 65

Issue: 7

Pages: 642-645

Print publication date: 01/10/2011

Online publication date: 08/07/2011

ISSN (print): 1359-6462

ISSN (electronic): 1872-8456

Publisher: Pergamon Press


DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2011.06.050


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