Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Metrics of urban morphology and their impact on energy consumption: A case study in the United Kingdom

Lookup NU author(s): Javier Urquizo Calderon, Dr Carlos CalderonORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


Energy policies implemented by local authorities and targeted at the domestic sector have focussed on interventions, which are usually selected after an optimization procedure. This paper identies dierences and similarities between three Medium Layer Super Output Area (MLSOA) districts in the United Kingdom (UK) and draws conclusions which prove to be useful to interpret other districts in the city and provide general rules for energy eciency measures and distributed supply interventions in Newcastle upon Tyne UK, and potentially beyond. The core argument aims at provide an important link between the energy-reducing and energy-increasing eects of four urban morphology characteristics in `place-specic' neighbourhoods. Our methodology explores the poten- tial application of the close relation between four urban morphological characteristics and the spatial aggregated building energy end-use in the roll-out strategy of interven- tions. Our ndings rst indicate that the combination of shape and size of continuous building classes (in a building class the main residential buildings are grouped by their age and building type) and their extent using patch areas potentially simplify retrot campaigns. We argue that the whole continuous building class inuences the building'sthermal mass (the building massing) and their extent (the patch area or patch in short) and these are better descriptors for the energy use in the occupational phase of a build- ing. Second, the building massing and the plot ratio (the ratio of the building oor area to the land area in a given territory) are a better descriptors of building density/mixing of land use and built form leading to the potential use of adequate distributed energy supply. Third, the way in which social and economic factors interact to shape area-based of household energy consumption leads to a possible better spatially-enabled policies for low income families; and fourth, the layout and orientation design of the neighbourhood may identify municipal sites for potential renewable energy projects. The use of the building massing and patch areas as spatial cluster operators simplify the complexity of aggregated building energy consumption by representing its spatial incidence through a smooth continuous surface. Additionally, building classes and its patch area extent show notable dierences across dierent sub-city areas. Furthermore, the greater the number of building classes, the more diverse is the socio-economic make-up of a sub-city area. Keywords: cities, climate change, neighbourhood urban energy modelling,

Publication metadata

Author(s): Urquizo J, Calderon C, James P

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Energy Research & Social Science

Year: 2017

Volume: 32

Pages: 193-206

Print publication date: 01/10/2017

Online publication date: 23/05/2017

Acceptance date: 15/03/2017

Date deposited: 28/04/2017

ISSN (print): 2214-6296

ISSN (electronic): 2214-6326

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2017.03.011

Notes: Dear Dr. Calderon, Thank you for your response. From checking, I can confirm that DOI (10.1016/j.erss.2017.03.011) is correct. Please be advised that you are unable to locate the article online using this DOI, because the article is still at status where item has being checked for completeness and is ready for supplier. Rest assured that you will be contacted accordingly. Kind Regards, Bernadeth C. Domaboc Elsevier Researcher Support Help and Support


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric