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Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China

Lookup NU author(s): Emerita Professor Anne Maguire, Dr Vida Zohoori



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Sage, 2017.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis. The products were categorised into 10 groups according to product type. F concentrations of the samples ranged from 0.012–1.625 mg/l with a mean of 0.189 mg/l and a median of 0.076 mg/l. More than half of the products (55%) had an F concentration of ≤0.1 mg/l, while <5% had a F concentration of >0.7 mg/l. The ‘tea with milk’ group contained the highest mean F concentration (1.350 mg/l), whereas the lowest mean F concentration (0.027 mg/l) was found for the ‘fruit juice’ group. For some products, such as tea, fruit juice and carbonated beverages, there were substantial variations in F concentration between batches, manufacturers and production sites. In conclusion, ready-to-drink products (apart from tea), sold in Heilongjiang province, China, when consumed in moderation are unlikely to constitute a substantial risk factor for the development of dental or skeletal fluorosis.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Liu Y, Maguire A, Tianqui G, Yanguo S, Zohoori FV

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Nutrition and Health

Year: 2017

Volume: 23

Issue: 1

Pages: 25-32

Print publication date: 01/03/2017

Online publication date: 29/12/2017

Acceptance date: 16/11/2016

Date deposited: 17/08/2017

ISSN (print): 0260-1060

ISSN (electronic): 2047-945X

Publisher: Sage


DOI: 10.1177/0260106016685726


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