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Investigating consumer confusion proneness cross-culturally: empirical evidence from the USA, Germany, and Thailand

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Andrew Lindridge



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Inderscience, 2016.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


With ever increasing amounts of marketplace information, decreasing inter-brand differences, and increasingly complex products, confusion is becoming a global problem for consumers. Although confusion has been identified as a problem for consumers and marketers in many countries most measures of consumer confusion have been developed in western countries, including Walsh et al.'s (2007) consumer confusion proneness (CCP) scale, and have not been shown to be cross-culturally valid. Thus, relatively little is known about the cross-cultural differences in confusion proneness. Using the three-dimensional, nine-item CCP scale developed in Germany, this study explores cross-cultural differences in consumer proneness in the United States as well as in Germany and Thailand. The results reveal that some factor loadings of the CCP scale are not invariant across samples and that unique factor structures emerge for the US and Thai samples. The article concludes by discussing theoretical and managerial implications as well as study limitations.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Walsh G, Lindridge A, Mitchell V-W, Deseniss A, Lippold A

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Markets and Business Systems

Year: 2016

Volume: 2

Issue: 3

Pages: 226-242

Print publication date: 26/09/2016

Acceptance date: 16/09/2016

Date deposited: 05/10/2017

ISSN (print): 2056-4112

ISSN (electronic): 2056-4120

Publisher: Inderscience


DOI: 10.1504/IJMABS.2016.10002467


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