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Cyanine dyes as ratiometric fluorescence standards for the far-red spectral region

Lookup NU author(s): Joshua Karlsson, Dr Owen Woodford, Emeritus Professor Anthony Harriman



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies. Most quantitative fluorescence measurements report emission quantum yields by referring the integrated fluorescence profile to that of a well-known standard compound measured under carefully controlled conditions. This simple protocol works well provided an appropriate standard fluorophore is available and that the experimental conditions used for reference and unknown are closely comparable. Commercial fluorescence spectrophotometers tend to perform very well at wavelengths between 250 and 650 nm but are less responsive at longer wavelengths. There are no recognized emission standards for the far-red region. We now report fluorescence quantum yields for a series of commercially available cyanine dyes in methanol solution at room temperature. The compounds are selected to span the wavelength region from 600 to 850 nm, with absolute emission quantum yields being determined by thermal blooming spectrometry. Calibration of the instrument is made by reference to aluminium(iii) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and aza-BODIPY in methanol.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Karlsson JKG, Woodford OJ, Mustroph H, Harriman A

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences

Year: 2018

Volume: 17

Issue: 1

Pages: 99-106

Print publication date: 01/01/2018

Online publication date: 04/12/2017

Acceptance date: 04/12/2017

Date deposited: 16/03/2018

ISSN (print): 1474-905X

ISSN (electronic): 1474-9092

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry


DOI: 10.1039/c7pp00333a


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Funder referenceFunder name
EPSRC (Industrial CASE Award)