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Automated FES for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Following Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury

Lookup NU author(s): Ed Hodkin, Isabel Glover, Dr Supriyo Choudhury, Emerita Professor Helen Rodgers, Professor Andrew Jackson



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


CCBY Neurorehabilitation aims to induce beneficial neural plasticity in order to restore function following injury to the nervous system. There is increasing evidence that appropriately timed functional electrical stimulation (FES) can promote associative plasticity, but the dosage is critical for lasting functional benefits. Here we present a novel approach to closed-loop control of muscle stimulation for the rehabilitation of reach-to-grasp movements following stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI). We developed a simple, low cost device to deliver assistive stimulation contingent on users’ self-initiated movements. The device allows repeated practice with minimal input by a therapist, and is potentially suitable for home use. Pilot data demonstrates usability by people with upper limb weakness following SCI and stroke, and participant feedback was positive. Moreover, repeated training with the device over 1-2 weeks led to functional benefits on a general object manipulation assessment. Thus automated FES delivered by this novel device may provide a promising and readily translatable therapy for upper limb rehabilitation for people with stroke and SCI.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Hodkin EF, Lei Y, Humby J, Glover IS, Choudhury S, Kumar H, Perez MA, Rodgers H, Jackson A

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering

Year: 2018

Volume: 26

Issue: 5

Pages: 1067-1074

Print publication date: 01/05/2018

Online publication date: 29/03/2018

Acceptance date: 01/03/2018

Date deposited: 16/04/2018

ISSN (print): 1534-4320

ISSN (electronic): 1558-0210

Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.


DOI: 10.1109/TNSRE.2018.2816238


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Funder referenceFunder name
Wellcome Trust