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Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: An analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Rufus Akinyemi

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Abstract

Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Background: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990-2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past trends, we projected indicators to 2030. Methods: We used standardised GBD 2016 methods to measure 37 health-related indicators from 1990 to 2016, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2015. We substantially revised the universal health coverage (UHC) measure, which focuses on coverage of essential health services, to also represent personal health-care access and quality for several non-communicable diseases. We transformed each indicator on a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the 25th percentile estimated between 1990 and 2030, and 100 as the 975th percentile during that time. An index representing all 37 health-related SDG indicators was constructed by taking the geometric mean of scaled indicators by target. On the basis of past trends, we produced projections of indicator values, using a weighted average of the indicator and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2016 with weights for each annual rate of change based on out-of-sample validity. 24 of the currently measured health-related SDG indicators have defined SDG targets, against which we assessed attainment. Findings Globally, the median health-related SDG index was 567 (IQR 319-668) in 2016 and country-level performance markedly varied, with Singapore (868, 95% uncertainty interval 846-889), Iceland (860, 841-876), and Sweden (856, 818-878) having the highest levels in 2016 and Afghanistan (109, 96-119), the Central African Republic (110, 88-138), and Somalia (113, 95-131) recording the lowest. Between 2000 and 2016, notable improvements in the UHC index were achieved by several countries, including Cambodia, Rwanda, Equatorial Guinea, Laos, Turkey, and China; however, a number of countries, such as Lesotho and the Central African Republic, but also high-income countries, such as the USA, showed minimal gains. Based on projections of past trends, the median number of SDG targets attained in 2030 was five (IQR 2-8) of the 24 defined targets currently measured. Globally, projected target attainment considerably varied by SDG indicator, ranging from more than 60% of countries projected to reach targets for under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria, to less than 5% of countries projected to achieve targets linked to 11 indicator targets, including those for childhood overweight, tuberculosis, and road injury mortality. For several of the health-related SDGs, meeting defined targets hinges upon substantially faster progress than what most countries have achieved in the past. Interpretation GBD 2016 provides an updated and expanded evidence base on where the world currently stands in terms of the health-related SDGs. Our improved measure of UHC offers a basis to monitor the expansion of health services necessary to meet the SDGs. Based on past rates of progress, many places are facing challenges in meeting defined health-related SDG targets, particularly among countries that are the worst off. In view of the early stages of SDG implementation, however, opportunity remains to take actions to accelerate progress, as shown by the catalytic effects of adopting the Millennium Development Goals after 2000. With the SDGs' broader, bolder development agenda, multisectoral commitments and investments are vital to make the health-related SDGs within reach of all populations.


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Author(s): Fullman N, Barber RM, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, Abdulle AM, Abera SF, Aboyans V, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Adedeji IA, Adetokunboh O, Afshin A, Agrawal A, Agrawal S, Kiadaliri AA, Ahmadieh H, Ahmed MB, Aichour AN, Aichour I, Aichour MTE, Aiyar S, Akinyemi RO, Akseer N, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam N, Alasfoor D, Alene KA, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Alkerwi A, Alla F, Allebeck P, Allen C, Al-Raddadi R, Alsharif U, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amini E, Ammar W, Antonio CAT, Ansari H, Anwari P, Arora M, Artaman A, Aryal KK, Asayesh H, Asgedom SW, Assadi R, Atey TM, Atre SR, Avila-Burgos L, Arthur Avokpaho EFG, Awasthi A, Azzopardi P, Bacha U, Badawi A, Balakrishnan K, Bannick MS, Barac A, Barker-Collo SL, Barnighausen T, Barrero LH, Basu S, Battle KE, Baune BT, Beardsley J, Bedi N, Beghi E, Bejot Y, Bell ML, Bennett DA, Bennett JR, Bensenor IM, Berhane A, Berhe DF, Bernabe E, Betsu BD, Beuran M, Beyene AS, Bhala N, Bhansali A, Bhatt S, Bhutta ZA, Bikbov B, Bilal AI, Birungi C, Biryukov S, Bizuayehu HM, Blosser CD, Boneya DJ, Bose D, Bou-Orm IR, Brauer M, Breitborde NJK, Brugha TS, Bulto LNB, Butt ZA, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Cameron E, Campuzano JC, Carabin H, Cardenas R, Carrero JJ, Carter A, Casey DC, Castaneda-Orjuela CA, Rivas JC, Castro RE, Catala-Lopez F, Cercy K, Chang H-Y, Chang J-C, Charlson FJ, Chew A, Chisumpa VH, Chitheer AA, Christensen H, Christopher DJ, Cirillo M, Cooper C, Criqui MH, Cromwell EA, Crump JA, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dargan PI, Das Neves J, Davitoiu DV, De Courten B, De Steur H, Degenhardt L, Deiparine S, Deribe K, DeVeber GA, Ding EL, Djalalinia S, Do HP, Dokova K, Doku DT, Dorsey ER, Driscoll TR, Dubey M, Duncan BB, Ebel BE, Ebrahimi H, El-Khatib ZZ, Enayati A, Endries AY, Ermakov SP, Erskine HE, Eshrati B, Eskandarieh S, Esteghamati A, Estep K, Faraon EJA, Sofia E Sa Farinha C, Faro A, Farzadfar F, Fazeli MS, Feigin VL, Feigl AB, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Fernandes JC, Ferrari AJ, Feyissa TR, Filip I, Fischer F, Fitzmaurice C, Flaxman AD, Foigt N, Foreman KJ, Frank T, Franklin RC, Friedman J, Frostad JJ, Furst T, Furtado JM, Gakidou E, Garcia-Basteiro AL, Gebrehiwot TT, Geleijnse JM, Geleto A, Gemechu BL, Gething PW, Gibney KB, Gill PS, Gillum RF, Giref AZ, Gishu MD, Giussani G, Glenn SD, Godwin WW, Goldberg EM, Gona PN, Goodridge A, Gopalani SV, Goryakin Y, Griswold M, Gugnani HC, Gupta R, Gupta T, Gupta V, Hafezi-Nejad N, Bidgoli HH, Hailu GB, Hamadeh RR, Hammami M, Hankey GJ, Harb HL, Hareri HA, Hassanvand MS, Havmoeller R, Hawley C, Hay SI, He J, Hendrie D, Henry NJ, Heredia-Pi IB, Hoek HW, Holmberg M, Horita N, Hosgood HD, Hostiuc S, Hoy DG, Hsairi M, Htet AS, Huang H, Huang JJ, Huynh C, Iburg KM, Ikeda C, Inoue M, Irvine CMS, Jacobsen KH, Jahanmehr N, Jakovljevic MB, Jauregui A, Javanbakht M, Jeemon P, Jha V, John D, Johnson CO, Johnson SC, Jonas JB, Jurisson M, Kabir Z, Kadel R, Kahsay A, Kamal R, Karch A, Karema CK, Kasaeian A, Kassebaum NJ, Kastor A, Katikireddi SV, Kawakami N, Keiyoro PN, Kelbore SG, Kemmer L, Kengne AP, Kesavachandran CN, Khader YS, Khalil IA, Khan EA, Khang Y-H, Khosravi A, Khubchandani J, Kieling C, Kim D, Kim JY, Kim YJ, Kimokoti RW, Kinfu Y, Kisa A, Kissimova-Skarbek KA, Kivimaki M, Kokubo Y, Kopec JA, Kosen S, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Kravchenko M, Krohn KJ, Defo BK, Bicer BK, Kulikoff XR, Kumar GA, Kutz MJ, Kyu HH, Lal DK, Lalloo R, Lansingh VC, Larsson A, Lazarus JV, Lee PH, Leigh J, Leung J, Leung R, Levi M, Li Y, Liben ML, Linn S, Liu PY, Liu S, Lodha R, Looker KJ, Lopez AD, Lorkowski S, Lotufo PA, Lozano R, Lucas TCD, Lunevicius R, Mackay MT, Maddison ER, El Razek HMA, El Razek MMA, Majdan M, Majdzadeh R, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Malhotra R, Malta DC, Mamun AA, Manguerra H, Mantovani LG, Manyazewal T, Mapoma CC, Marks GB, Martin RV, Martinez-Raga J, Martins-Melo FR, Martopullo I, Mathur MR, Mazidi M, McAlinden C, McGaughey M, McGrath JJ, McKee M, Mehata S, Mehndiratta MM, Meier T, Meles KG, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Mengesha 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Pourmalek F, Qorbani M, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rao PC, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, Ur Rahman MH, Rahman MA, Rai RK, Rajsic S, Ram U, Ranabhat CL, Rawaf S, Reidy P, Reiner RC, Reinig N, Reitsma MB, Remuzzi G, Renzaho AMN, Resnikoff S, Rezaei S, Blancas MJR, Roba KT, Rojas-Rueda D, Rokni MB, Roshandel G, Roth GA, Roy A, Rubagotti E, Sadat N, Safdarian M, Safi S, Safiri S, Sagar R, Salama J, Salomon JA, Samy AM, Sanabria JR, Santomauro D, Santos IS, Santos JV, Santric Milicevic MM, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Sawhney M, Saxena S, Saylan MI, Shirude S, Schmidt MI, Schneider IJC, Schneider MT, Schottker B, Schutte AE, Schwebel DC, Schwendicke F, Seedat S, Sepanlou SG, Servan-Mori EE, Shackelford KA, Shaheen A, Shahraz S, Shaikh MA, Shamsipour M, Shamsizadeh M, Islam SMS, Sharma J, Sharma R, She J, Shi P, Shibuya K, Shields C, Shiferaw MS, Shigematsu M, Shin M-J, Shiri R, Shirkoohi R, Shishani K, Shoman H, Shrime MG, Silberberg DH, Silva DAS, Silva JP, Silveira DGA, Singh JA, Singh V, Sinha DN, 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Wolfe CDA, Woodbrook R, Xavier D, Xu G, Yadgir S, Yakob B, Yan LL, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Ye P, Yimam HH, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Yoon S-J, Yotebieng M, Younis MZ, Zaidi Z, El Sayed Zaki M, Zavala-Arciniega L, Zhang X, Zipkin B, Zodpey S, Lim SS, Murray CJL

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: The Lancet

Year: 2017

Volume: 390

Issue: 10100

Pages: 1423-1459

Online publication date: 12/09/2017

Acceptance date: 02/04/2016

ISSN (print): 0140-6736

ISSN (electronic): 1474-547X

Publisher: Lancet Publishing Group

URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32336-X

DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32336-X


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