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Lookup NU author(s): Dr Tobias Page
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© 2018 European Association of Urology Background: There is no effective intravesical second-line therapy for non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) when bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) fails. Objective: To compare disease-free survival time (DFS) between radiofrequency-induced thermo-chemotherapy effect (RITE) and institutional standard second-line therapy (control) in NMIBC patients with recurrence following induction/maintenance BCG. Design, settings, and participants: Open-label, phase III randomised controlled trial accrued across 14 centres between May 2010 and July 2013 (HYMN [ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01094964]). Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to RITE (60 min, 40 mg mitomycin-C, 42 ± 2 °C) or control following stratification for carcinoma in situ (CIS) status (present/absent), therapy history (failure of previous induction/maintenance BCG), and treatment centre. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Primary outcome measures were DFS and complete response (CR) at 3 mo for the CIS at randomisation subgroup. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Results and limitations: A total of 104 patients were randomised (48 RITE: 56 control). Median follow-up for the 31 patients without a DFS event was 36 mo. There was no significant difference in DFS between treatment arms (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84–2.10, p = 0.23) or in 3-mo CR rate in CIS patients (n = 71; RITE: 30% vs control: 47%, p = 0.15). There was no significant difference in DFS between treatment arms in non-CIS patients (n = 33; RITE: 53% vs control: 24% at 24 mo, HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.22–1.17, p = 0.11). DFS was significantly lower in RITE than in control in CIS with/without papillary patients (n = 71; HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.17–3.62, p = 0.01; treatment-subgroup interaction p = 0.007). Disease progression was observed in four patients in each treatment arm. Adverse events and health-related quality of life between treatment arms were comparable. Conclusions: DFS was similar between RITE and control. RITE may be a second-line therapy for non-CIS recurrence following BCG failure; however, confirmatory trials are needed. RITE patients with CIS with/without papillary had lower DFS than control. HYMN highlights the importance of the control arm when evaluating novel therapies. Patient summary: This study did not show a difference in bladder cancer outcomes between microwave-heated chemotherapy and standard of care treatment. Papillary bladder lesions may benefit from microwave-heated chemotherapy treatment; however, more research is needed. Both treatments are similarly well tolerated. Radiofrequency-induced thermo-chemotherapy effect (RITE) had similar oncological outcomes as control. RITE-treated noncarcinoma in situ (CIS) patients reported nonsignificant better disease-free survival (DFS). RITE-treated CIS with/without papillary patients had significantly lower DFS. Control arm is essential when evaluating novel therapies.
Author(s): Tan WS, Panchal A, Buckley L, Devall AJ, Loubiere LS, Pope AM, Feneley MR, Cresswell J, Issa R, Mostafid H, Madaan S, Bhatt R, McGrath J, Sangar V, Griffiths TRL, Page T, Hodgson D, Datta SN, Billingham LJ, Kelly JD
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: European Urology
Print publication date: 01/01/2019
Online publication date: 28/09/2018
Acceptance date: 04/09/2018
ISSN (print): 0302-2838
ISSN (electronic): 1873-7560
Publisher: Elsevier BV
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