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On and Off-Blockchain Enforcement Of Smart Contracts

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Carlos Molina-Jimenez, Dr Ellis SolaimanORCiD, Dr Ioannis SfyrakisORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of a conference proceedings (inc. abstract) that has been published in its final definitive form by Springer, 2019.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


Emerging blockchain technology is a promising platform for implementing smart contracts. But there is a large class of applications, where blockchain is inadequate due to performance, scalability, and consistency requirements, and also due to language expressiveness and cost issues that are hard to solve. In this paper we explain that in some situations a centralised approach that does not rely on blockchain is a better alternative due to its simplicity, scalability, and performance. We suggest that in applications where decentralisation and transparency are essential, developers can advantageously combine the two approaches into hybrid solutions where some operations are enforced by enforcers deployed on– blockchains and the rest by enforcers deployed on trusted third parties.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Molina-Jimenez C, Solaiman E, Sfyrakis I, Ng I, Crowcroft J

Publication type: Conference Proceedings (inc. Abstract)

Publication status: Published

Conference Name: EURO-PAR 2018 24th International European Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing - FPDAPP 2018 International Workshop on Future Perspective of Decentralized Applications

Year of Conference: 2019

Pages: 342-354

Print publication date: 01/01/2019

Online publication date: 31/12/2018

Acceptance date: 04/09/2018

Date deposited: 21/10/2018

ISSN: 0302-9743

Publisher: Springer


DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-10549-5_27

Library holdings: Search Newcastle University Library for this item

Series Title: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; Euro-Par 2018: Parallel Processing Workshops

ISBN: 9783030105488