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Implementation of Smart Contracts Using Hybrid Architectures with On and Off–Blockchain Components

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Carlos Molina-Jimenez, Dr Ioannis SfyrakisORCiD, Dr Ellis SolaimanORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of a conference proceedings (inc. abstract) that has been published in its final definitive form by IEEE, 2018.

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Decentralised (on-blockchain) and centralised (off– blockchain) platforms are available for the implementation of smart contracts. However, none of the two alternatives can individually provide the services and quality of services (QoS) imposed on smart contracts involved in a large class of applications. The reason is that blockchain platforms suffer from scalability, performance, transaction costs and other limitations. Likewise, off–blockchain platforms are afflicted by drawbacks emerging from their dependence on single trusted third parties. We argue that in several applications, hybrid platforms composed from the integration of on and off–blockchain platforms are more adequate. Developers that informatively choose between the three alternatives are likely to implement smart contracts that deliver the expected QoS. Hybrid architectures are largely unexplored. To help cover the gap and as a proof of concept, in this paper we discuss the implementation of smart contracts on hybrid architectures. We show how a smart contract can be split and executed partially on an off–blockchain contract compliance checker and partially on the rinkeby ethereum network. To test the solution, we expose it to sequences of contractual operations generated mechanically by a contract validator tool.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Molina-Jimenez C, Sfyrakis I, Solaiman E, Ng I, Wong M, Chun A, Crowcroft J

Publication type: Conference Proceedings (inc. Abstract)

Publication status: Published

Conference Name: The 8th IEEE International Symposium on Cloud and Services Computing (IEEE SC2) 2018

Year of Conference: 2018

Print publication date: 01/02/2019

Online publication date: 10/12/2018

Acceptance date: 01/10/2018

Date deposited: 21/10/2018

Publisher: IEEE


DOI: 10.1109/SC2.2018.00018

Library holdings: Search Newcastle University Library for this item

ISBN: 9781728102375