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Universal Nanoparticle Wetting Agent for Upscaling Perovskite Solar Cells

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Pablo Docampo



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by American Chemical Society, 2019.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


© 2019 American Chemical Society. Solution-processed perovskite solar cells reach efficiencies over 23% on lab-scale. However, a reproducible transfer of these established processes to upscaling techniques or different substrate surfaces requires a highly controllable perovskite film formation. Especially, hydrophobic surfaces cause severe dewetting issues. Such surfaces are particularly crucial for the so-called standard n-i-p cell architecture when fullerene-based electron transport layers are employed underneath perovskite absorber films. In this work, a unique and universally applicable method was developed based on the deposition of size-controlled Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 nanoparticles. By enhancing the surface energy, they act as a universal wetting agent. This allows perovskite precursor solutions to be spread perfectly over various substrates including problematic hydrophobic Si-wafers or fullerene self-assembled monolayers (C 60 -SAMs). Moreover, the results show that the perovskite morphology, solar cell performance, and reproducibility benefit from the presence of the nanoparticles at the interface. When applied to 144 cm 2 C 60 -SAM-coated substrates, homogenous coverage can be realized via spin coating resulting in average efficiencies of 16% (maximum 18%) on individualized cells with 0.1 cm 2 active area. Modules in the same setup reached maximum efficiencies of 11 and 7% on 2.8 and 23.65 cm 2 aperture areas, respectively.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Schultes M, Giesbrecht N, Kuffner J, Ahlswede E, Docampo P, Bein T, Powalla M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

Year: 2019

Volume: 11

Issue: 13

Pages: 12948-12957

Print publication date: 03/04/2019

Online publication date: 12/03/2019

Acceptance date: 12/03/2019

Date deposited: 23/05/2019

ISSN (print): 1944-8244

ISSN (electronic): 1944-8252

Publisher: American Chemical Society


DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b22206


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