Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Introducing thermal wave transport analysis (TWTA): A thermal technique for dopamine detection by screen-printed electrodes functionalized with Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) particles

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Marloes PeetersORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI. A novel procedure is developed for producing bulk modified Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), which involves the direct mixing of the polymer particles within the screen-printed ink. This allowed reduction of the sample preparation time from 45 min to 1 min, and resulted in higher reproducibility of the electrodes. The samples are measured with a novel detection method, namely, thermal wave transport analysis (TWTA), relying on the analysis of thermal waves through a functional interface. As a first proof-of-principle, MIPs for dopamine are developed and successfully incorporated within a bulk modified MIP SPE. The detection limits of dopamine within buffer solutions for the MIP SPEs are determined via three independent techniques. With cyclic voltammetry this was determined to be 4.7 × 10-6 M, whereas by using the heat-transfer method (HTM) 0.35 × 10-6 M was obtained, and with the novel TWTA concept 0.26 × 10-6 M is possible. This TWTA technique is measured simultaneously with HTM and has the benefits of reducing measurement time to less than 5 min and increasing effect size by nearly a factor of two. The two thermal methods are able to enhance dopamine detection by one order of magnitude compared to the electrochemical method. In previous research, it was not possible to measure neurotransmitters in complex samples with HTM, but with the improved signal-to-noise of TWTA for the first time, spiked dopamine concentrations were determined in a relevant food sample. In summary, novel concepts are presented for both the sensor functionalization side by employing screen-printing technology, and on the sensing side, the novel TWTA thermal technique is reported. The developed bio-sensing platform is cost-effective and suitable for mass-production due to the nature of screen-printing technology, which makes it very interesting for neurotransmitter detection in clinical diagnostic applications.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Peeters MM, Van Grinsven B, Foster CW, Cleij TJ, Banks CE

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Molecules

Year: 2016

Volume: 21

Issue: 5

Online publication date: 26/04/2016

Acceptance date: 22/04/2016

Date deposited: 15/04/2019

ISSN (print): 1431-5165

ISSN (electronic): 1420-3049

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050552

PubMed id: 27128891


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name