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Energy-economic life cycle assessment (LCA) and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of olive oil production in Iran

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mohammad RajaeifarORCiD


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In this study the energy and economic flows and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of olive oil production in Iran were investigated in terms of a life cycle assessment with considering four main stages of agricultural olive production, olive transportation, olive oil extraction and its oil transportation to the customer centers. Data was collected from 150 olive growers in Guilan province of Iran. Results revealed that the total energy consumption through the olive oil life cycle was 20 344 MJ ha−1 while the mass-based allocation method results indicated that the total energy consumption was 8035 MJ ha−1. The total energy output was estimated as 23 568 MJ ha−1. The total GHG emissions was estimated to 1333 kg ha−1 (CO2eq) while the mass-based allocation method results indicated that the total GHG emissions was 525 kg ha−1 (CO2eq). The agricultural production stage ranked the first in GHG emissions among the four stages with the share of 93.81% of total GHG emissions. Results of econometric model estimation revealed that the impact of human labor, farmyard manure and electricity on olive oil yield and the impact of electricity and chemical fertilizers on GHG emissions were significantly positive.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Rajaeifar MA, Akram A, Ghobadian B, Heidari MD

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Energy

Year: 2014

Volume: 66

Pages: 139-149

Print publication date: 01/03/2014

Online publication date: 20/01/2014

Acceptance date: 26/12/2013

ISSN (print): 0360-5442

ISSN (electronic): 1873-6785

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/


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