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Tilia cultivars in historic lime avenues and parks in the UK, Estonia and other European countries

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Kirsten Wolff, Dr Samuel LoganORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Elsevier GmbH - Urban und Fischer, 2019.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


Trees have been planted in cities, towns and notable places for many centuries. Here we investigate which genotypes (cultivars) of Tilia have been used in Europe. Accessions of trees from across the UK, Estonia, Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands were analysed and compared to nursery material, using nuclear microsatellites. The majority of accessions (141 out of 166) appeared to be the hybrid Tilia x europaea, and remarkably there were two cultivars, named Pallida and Zwarte Linde that were commonly planted across north-western Europe and Estonia. The cultivar Hatfield was only found in the UK. In addition, some trees had genotypes only found at one or two locations. Some of the named commercial cultivars also were the Pallida or Zwarte Linde genotype. For the species T. cordata and T. platyphyllos there were relatively more unique genotypes among the planted specimens. The three most planted cultivars, Pallida, Zwarte Linde and Hatfield, were not genetically closely related. Pallida and Zwarte Linde showed some genetic similarity to Belgian and Dutch material, but Hatfield did not seem similar to mainland Europe genotypes. The genetic analysis confirmed the limited source of the widely planted Tilia trees across many European countries, from the 1600s up till now. When supplementation or replanting is necessary genotyping should be used to confirm the historically correct type and maintain uniformity.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Wolff K, Hansen OK, Couch S, Moore L, Sander H, Logan SA

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening

Year: 2019

Volume: 43

Print publication date: 01/07/2019

Online publication date: 01/06/2019

Acceptance date: 20/05/2019

Date deposited: 16/05/2019

ISSN (print): 1618-8667

ISSN (electronic): 1610-8167

Publisher: Elsevier GmbH - Urban und Fischer


DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2019.05.008


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