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Oral lichen planus: A disease or a spectrum of tissue reactions? Types, causes, diagnostic algorhythms, prognosis, management strategies

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Marco Carrozzo


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© 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions comprise a group of disorders of the oral mucosa that likely represent a common reaction pattern to 1 or more unknown antigens. The coexistence of hyperkeratotic striation/reticulation, varying degrees of mucosal inflammation from mild erythema to severe widespread ulceration, and a band-like infiltrate of mononuclear inflammatory cells including activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, are considered suggestive of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions. Several classification systems of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions have been attempted, although none seem to be comprehensive. In this paper, we present a classification of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions that includes oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid contact lesions, oral lichenoid drug reactions, oral lichenoid lesions of graft vs. host disease, discoid lupus erythematosus, and systemic lupus erythematosus, lichen planus-like variant of paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome, chronic ulcerative stomatitis, lichen planus pemphigoides, solitary fixed drug eruptions, and lichen sclerosus. We present the clinical and diagnostic aspects of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions, and discuss related treatment options.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Carrozzo M, Porter S, Mercadante V, Fedele S

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Periodontology 2000

Year: 2019

Volume: 80

Issue: 1

Pages: 105-125

Print publication date: 01/06/2019

Online publication date: 15/05/2019

Acceptance date: 02/04/2019

ISSN (print): 0906-6713

ISSN (electronic): 1600-0757

Publisher: Blackwell Munksgaard


DOI: 10.1111/prd.12260