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Distributed plug-and-play optimal generator and load control for power system frequency regulation

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Janusz Bialek



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


A distributed control scheme, which can be implemented on generators and controllable loads in a plug-and-play manner, is proposed for power system frequency regulation. The proposed scheme is based on local measurements, local computation, and neighborhood information exchanges over a communication network with an arbitrary (but connected) topology. In the event of a sudden change in generation or load, the proposed scheme can restore the nominal frequency and the reference inter-area power flows, while minimizing the total cost of control for participating generators and loads. Power network stability under the proposed control is proved with a relatively realistic model which includes nonlinear power flow and a generic (potentially nonlinear or high-order) turbine-governor model, and further with first- and second-order turbine-governor models as special cases. In simulations, the proposed control scheme shows a comparable performance to the existing automatic generation control (AGC) when implemented only on the generator side, and demonstrates better dynamic characteristics than AGC when each scheme is implemented on both generators and controllable loads. Simulation results also show robustness of the proposed scheme to communication link failure.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Zhao E, Mallada S, Low J, Bialek J

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems

Year: 2018

Volume: 101

Pages: 1-12

Print publication date: 01/10/2018

Online publication date: 14/03/2018

Acceptance date: 10/03/2018

Date deposited: 27/06/2019

ISSN (print): 0142-0615

ISSN (electronic): 1879-3517

Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.03.014


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Funder referenceFunder name
AMPS 1736448
CCF 163759
CNS 1544771
CNS 1545096
EPCN 1711188
EPCN 1619352
HDTRA 1-15-1-0003