Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Quantification of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in wastewater by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD)

Lookup NU author(s): Oladapo Komolafe, Bernard Bowler, Dr Jan DolfingORCiD, Dr Wojciech MrozikORCiD, Professor Russell DavenportORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.This paper describes a gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method that was developed for screening and reliable quantification of some selected PBDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in wastewater. Emphasis was placed on the ability of the method to simultaneously analyse low to high BDE congeners in a single run, whilst being comparatively cost-effective to gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods commonly employed today. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (Oasis HLB, Isolute PAH, and Isolute C18) were tested for efficient analyte extraction in terms of recovery and resultant clean extracts free of unwanted compounds. Isolute PAH performed better than other SPE cartridges, and in combination with optimized GC-ECD conditions permitted satisfactory determination of PBDE congeners at trace levels (method detection limits (MDLs) of 0.6 ng L-1 to 11 ng L-1) in water samples. Method accuracy and precision were evaluated by recovery experiments using laboratory spiked water samples at two concentrations (3 ng L-1 and 10 ng L-1). The method was employed to evaluate the fate and removal of selected PBDE congeners in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Northern England. PBDEs were detected in influent and effluent samples at 0-113 ng L-1 and 0-18 ng L-1 respectively.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Komolafe O, Bowler B, Dolfing J, Mrozik W, Davenport RJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Analytical Methods

Year: 2019

Volume: 11

Issue: 27

Pages: 3474-3482

Print publication date: 21/07/2019

Online publication date: 28/06/2019

Acceptance date: 14/06/2019

Date deposited: 03/09/2019

ISSN (print): 1759-9660

ISSN (electronic): 1759-9679

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry


DOI: 10.1039/c9ay00266a


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric