Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Evolution of asian corn borer resistance to Bt Toxins used singly or in Pairs

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Angharad MR GatehouseORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have revolutionized pest control, but the benefits of this approach have been reduced by the evolution of resistance in pests. The widely adopted ’pyramid strategy’ for delaying resistance entails transgenic crops producing two or more distinct toxins that kill the same pest. The limited experimental evidence supporting this strategy comes primarily from a model system under ideal conditions. Here we tested the pyramid strategy under nearly worst-case conditions, including some cross-resistance between the toxins in the pyramid. In a laboratory selection experiment with an artificial diet, we used Bt toxins Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Cry1Ie singly or in pairs against Ostrinia furnacalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in Asia. Under the conditions evaluated, pairs of toxins did not consistently delay the evolution of resistance relative to single toxins.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Wang Y, Quan Y, Yang J, Shu C, Wang Z, Zhang J, Gatehouse AMR, Tabashnik BE, He K

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Toxins

Year: 2019

Volume: 11

Issue: 8

Online publication date: 06/08/2019

Acceptance date: 01/08/2019

Date deposited: 02/09/2019

ISSN (electronic): 2072-6651

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/toxins11080461

PubMed id: 31390820


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric