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Redefining the Etiologic Landscape of Cerebellar Malformations

Lookup NU author(s): Lynne Overman, Dr Steven Lisgo

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Abstract

© 2019 American Society of Human GeneticsCerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Aldinger KA, Timms AE, Thomson Z, Mirzaa GM, Bennett JT, Rosenberg AB, Roco CM, Hirano M, Abidi F, Haldipur P, Cheng CV, Collins S, Park K, Zeiger J, Overmann LM, Alkuraya FS, Biesecker LG, Braddock SR, Cathey S, Cho MT, Chung BHY, Everman DB, Zarate YA, Jones JR, Schwartz CE, Goldstein A, Hopkin RJ, Krantz ID, Ladda RL, Leppig KA, McGillivray BC, Sell S, Wusik K, Gleeson JG, Nickerson DA, Bamshad MJ, Gerrelli D, Lisgo SN, Seelig G, Ishak GE, Barkovich AJ, Curry CJ, Glass IA, Millen KJ, Doherty D, Dobyns WB

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: American Journal of Human Genetics

Year: 2019

Volume: 105

Issue: 3

Pages: 606-615

Print publication date: 05/09/2019

Online publication date: 29/08/2019

Acceptance date: 26/07/2019

ISSN (print): 0002-9297

ISSN (electronic): 1537-6605

Publisher: Cell Press

URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.019

DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.019

PubMed id: 31474318


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