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Building as a Virtual Power Plant, Magnitude and Persistence of Deferrable Loads and Human Comfort Implications

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mohammad Royapoor, Dr Mehdi Pazhoohesh, Dr Peter Davison, Dr Haris Patsios, Professor Sara Walker



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


This work uses high resolution data from 130 electricity sub-meters to characterise a 12,500m2 commercial building as a virtual power plant (VPP) by assessing magnitude and duration of electrical loads suitable for demand response (DR). In 2018, the building had a peak hourly demand of 48 W/m2 and its electricity consumption (183.2 kWh/m2/yr.) was within low to medium range of air-conditioned UK portfolio. Deferrable loads from heat pumps, air handling units, lifts, lighting, circulating pumps and dry air coolers were used to illustrate building's DR capability over a maximum duration of 4 hours per DR cycle. On average, deferrable loads form 46.4% of total building electricity consumption and across a 4-hour DR cycle can be characterised as having an initial power (and stored energies) of 28kW (401 ± 117kWh); 109kW (571±82 kWh); and finally 138kW (625±18 kWh) for 100%, 41.5% and 24.6% of time respectively. Following a DR event, the HVAC ability to restore original indoor climate was found to be at least twice as fast as climatic drift during the event. A linear regression model was found to be weak in using external temperature to predict the magnitude of aggregated deferrable loads.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Royapoor M, Pazhoohesh M, Davison PJ, Patsios C, Walker S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Energy and Buildings

Year: 2020

Volume: 213

Print publication date: 15/04/2020

Online publication date: 30/01/2020

Acceptance date: 16/01/2020

Date deposited: 04/02/2020

ISSN (print): 0378-7788

ISSN (electronic): 1872-6178

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.109794


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