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Implementation and evaluation of smart contracts using a hybrid on‐ and off‐blockchain architecture

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Ellis SolaimanORCiD, Dr Ioannis SfyrakisORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Smart Contracts can be implemented using either centralised or decentralised (blockchain) platforms. However, for a large class of applications, neither of these two alternatives on its own can provide adequate scalability, performance, Quality of Service (QoS), security, and trust requirements. We argue that for many applications, hybrid solutions that combine both On and Off-Blockchain components, are more adequate. In this paper we introduce the design and implementation of a novel hybrid smart contract architecture built using the Ethereum blockchain connected to a centralised smart contract management system developed by us. We then compare and evaluate the implementation of an asset tracking service using 3 different architectures; On-chain, Off-chain, and Hybrid. We demonstrate that using a hybrid architecture, we can substantially improve performance of applications, while retaining security and trust for critical tasks.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Solaiman E, Wike T, Sfyrakis I

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Concurrency and Computation Practice and Experience

Year: 2021

Volume: 33

Issue: 1

Print publication date: 10/01/2021

Online publication date: 13/05/2020

Acceptance date: 27/03/2020

Date deposited: 13/04/2020

ISSN (print): 1532-0626

ISSN (electronic): 1532-0634

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd


DOI: 10.1002/cpe.5811


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