Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Reliability and Validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in a Population-Based Cohort of Middle-Aged U.S. Adults

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Matthew Prina, Dr Yu-Tzu WuORCiD


Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available.


© 2017 Springer Publishing Company.Background and Purpose: Globally, depressive symptoms are a leading contributor to years lived with disability. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale has been used extensively to quantify depression; yet, its psychometric properties remain contentious. This study examined the reliability and factor structure of the CES-D in the MacArthur Foundation's Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS), a nationally representative cohort study of noninstitutionalized, English-speaking adults aged 24-74 years. Methods: Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to examine the reliability and factor structure of the CES-D. Results: There were 1,233 participants who were included in the analysis (mean age = 57.3 years [SD = 11.5], 56.7% female). Cronbach's alpha of .90 was observed. The 4-factor model had the best model fit. Conclusions: High internal consistency was demonstrated alongside a replication of the original 4-factor structure. Continued use of the CES-D in noninstitutionalized populations is warranted.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Cosco TD, Prina M, Stubbs B, Wu Y-T

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Nursing Measurement

Year: 2017

Volume: 25

Issue: 3

Pages: 476-485

Acceptance date: 02/04/2016

ISSN (print): 1061-3749

ISSN (electronic): 1945-7049

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company


DOI: 10.1891/1061-3749.25.3.476

PubMed id: 29268830


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric