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Short-term, high-fat overfeeding impairs glycaemic control but does not alter gut hormone responses to a mixed meal tolerance test in healthy, normal-weight individuals

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Carl Hulston

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


Abstract

© The Authors 2017.Obesity is undoubtedly caused by a chronic positive energy balance. However, the early metabolic and hormonal responses to overeating are poorly described. This study determined glycaemic control and selected gut hormone responses to nutrient intake before and after 7 d of high-fat overfeeding. Nine healthy individuals (five males, four females) performed a mixed meal tolerance test (MTT) before and after consuming a high-fat (65 %), high-energy (+50 %) diet for 7 d. Measurements of plasma glucose, NEFA, acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and serum insulin were taken before (fasting) and at 30-min intervals throughout the 180-min MTT (postprandial). Body mass increased by 0·79 (sem 0·14) kg after high-fat overfeeding (P<0·0001), and BMI increased by 0·27 (sem 0·05) kg/m2 (P=0·002). High-fat overfeeding also resulted in an 11·6 % increase in postprandial glucose AUC (P=0·007) and a 25·9 % increase in postprandial insulin AUC (P=0·005). Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1 and GIP responses to the MTT were all unaffected by the high-fat, high-energy diet. These findings demonstrate that even brief periods of overeating are sufficient to disrupt glycaemic control. However, as the postprandial orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorexigenic/insulintropic (GLP-1 and GIP) hormone responses were unaffected by the diet intervention, it appears that these hormones are resistant to short-term changes in energy balance, and that they do not play a role in the rapid reduction in glycaemic control.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Parry SA, Smith JR, Corbett TRB, Woods RM, Hulston CJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: British Journal of Nutrition

Year: 2017

Volume: 117

Issue: 1

Pages: 48-55

Print publication date: 14/01/2017

Online publication date: 24/01/2017

Acceptance date: 06/12/2016

Date deposited: 01/07/2020

ISSN (print): 0007-1145

ISSN (electronic): 1475-2662

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

URL: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516004475

DOI: 10.1017/S0007114516004475

PubMed id: 28115026


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